člen4. marca 2007 o 21:22
The Renaissance Evaluated•
In retrospect, the Renaissance may be seen as a time when many important concepts came into being, although they were not necessarily put into practice.
These included protective legislation, establishment of official posts for monuments care, a debate concerning the integrity of the object.
On the positive side, interventions saved many monuments from destruction.
However, Christianization of ancient monuments continued (although some of these projects reinforced structures), ancient sites were used as
quarries, sculptures were completed, paintings were restored.
člen27. februára 2007 o 10:48
Giorgio Vasari (1511- 1574)
Published: Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and Architects, 1550
Vasari’s approach was typical for his time. He was deeply interested in historical aspects of the arts. He criticized Pope Paul II for using ancient monuments such as the Colosseum as quarries. However, he also remarked:
”… restored (antiquities) certainly possess more grace than those
mutilated trunks, members without heads, or figures in any other way
maimed and defective.” (no respect for the original)
and described Gothic art as:
”…monstrous and barbarous, and lacking in everything that can be
called order”. (no respect for periods whose aesthetic he did not like)
člen21. februára 2007 o 18:08
A letter attributed to Pope Leo X, attributed to Raphael and his circle,
urges protections of Rome’s monuments.
Subsequently, Raphael is named Prefect of Marbles and Stones in 1515.
During Raphael’s administration, in 1517 Iacopus Mazochius was given a 7 year privilege to produce an epigraphic study of the inscriptions (monumenta) of Rome, effectively the first listing of protected monuments of the city, published 1521.
However, subsequent popes had no qualms about “Christianizing” ancient
monuments to serve their own purposes. Quarrying continues and Rome is sacked in 1527.
Raffaello Santi (Raphael)
Self Portrait, 1506,
Uffizi Gallery, Florence
člen20. februára 2007 o 21:26
Rome protected (sort of)
• Rome’s growing prestige led once again to a new interest in protection of her physical substance.
• 1425 Pope Martin V recognized a need for restauratio et reformatio. He issued a bull establishing the office of Magistri viarum, who was responsible for the maintenance and protection of Rome’s streets, bridges, gates, walls, and to some extent, her buildings.
• The first bull specifically for the protection of ancient remains was issued in 1462 by Pope Pius II.
However, laws were difficult to enforce and some popes used ancient sites, such as the Colosseum, as quarries…
•Rome had come to embody art and civilization.
•Collectors collected remains of ancient sculptures and great collections were formed which served as status symbols for their owners. By the 17th
century, supplies were growing scarcer and prices would rise above the means of smaller collectors.
•As the prestige of the collections grew, so to did interest in condition. Fragments, formerly accepted, began to be the focus of restoration
•Equally, ancient monuments were often hijacked by popes and nobles; re-worked they served as memorials to the present, no longer the past.
Rome Commercialized: Restoration begins
• In the 15th century, the Medici commissioned Donatello to restore and complete antique fragments for their palace in Florence.
• In Rome, similar work was undertaken for the Cardinal Andrea Della Valle (1463-1534) who commissioned Lorenzo di Ludovico to complete statutes and introduce antique elements into his garden landscape. This started a fashion for the restoration of sculpture in Rome.
• The ability to restore well became a mark of a sculptor’s skill.
Roman version of a Greek original, rediscovered in
1506 and subsequently restored several times:
Casting of the restoration of Montorsoli, 1532
The Hellenistic work with the original arm reintegrated
člen20. februára 2007 o 21:14
•The beginnings of historical identity.
•Francesco Petrarch (1304-74) and subsequently other humanists, begin to
look to the past for inspiration. Worldly accomplishment in the realm of the arts and sciences (areas of human achievement) are now seen as possible
and desirable not sacrilegious.
•From the 16th century onwards, a marked increase in written histories (of nations, of art, of sciences, etc.) appear as interest in self-definition in a historical context grows.
•The artistic heritage of the Ancient world finds new appreciation – this time, through Christian filters, setting a new standard for achievement.
•The “artist” emerges alongside the “craftsman”.
• Consequently, the concept of a “work of art” also develops,
in opposition to religious images or commodities.
Self-Portrait (detail), Oil on canvas
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Art + History = the birth of Art History as a concept
• Artistic value and historical value are applied simultaneously to ancient objects.
• In light of their new status, they are seen as deserving of different treatment than religious images which respect their proper aesthetic – not their cult value (not consistently, however!!)
• Increase in interest in antique works of art results in a commercial market for the same. Archeology begins to uncover the ancient world although without a logical methodology…
• …Rome also becomes a destination for study for artists, architects, etc. This leads to increased influence of ancient culture in all spheres of the modern arts.
člen21. januára 2007 o 21:13
Devotional reworking of religious objects:
Madonna di San Luca, Sta. Francesca Romana, Rome
After the restoration of c. 1950:
Head is 7th c.Roman in 13th century setting
Before the restoration of c. 1950:
13th century with repaintings of 1805
13th c. paint layer by a Roman artist,
detached during the c. 1950 restoration
člen21. januára 2007 o 21:04
Value within the context of the Christian Church
Cultural objects were highly venerated for their symbolic or perceived functional value. The value of relics as well as religious images lay in their physical substance; this, not their aesthetic appearance, determined their importance.
The implications: the work of the artistmaker as individual was not respected. Objects were refurbished and remade at the expense of the original as an expression of piety.
člen30. decembra 2006 o 22:19
Middle Ages in Europe
With the Christianization of the Roman Empire, the imperative to preserve much of the Ancient past suffered a serious setback.
The ancient world was now defined as “pagan”; relics of the ancient past were often regarded as suspicious and pagan. The earliest known impetus for preservation of objects, for their religious significance, again became
the primary factor directing care of material remains.
Objects from the pagan past were reworked and reused if they were thought to be beautiful. Others became raw materials once more – ancient building sites were used as quarries and metals were melted down…
člen26. decembra 2006 o 22:31
The Importance of Rome:
The earliest, strongest, most consistent manifestations of awareness of the need to preserve historical structures and art works in Europe occurs in Rome.
• Why? The situation of Rome was unique – of all the cities
in Europe, Rome was perhaps the only one that was:
– Important in a political context both in the past and in the present
– THE major religious center of the Christian Church in Europe
– In possession of a stunning cultural heritage (from buildings to
statuary, much which was subsequently to be rediscovered
through archaeological digs)
– A center of importance for the arts, especially towards the
Renaissance, as the popes and nobles of the city continued to
commission new works
Public policy on preservation begins in Rome spurred by a recognition of the
importance of the capital of the empire.
Beginning with the reign of the emperor Julian the Apostate (born 332), decrees were made concerning the protection and maintenance of public buildings. Under Theodoric the Great (495-526) officials were appointed to oversee the preservation of statutes (curator statuarum) and of ancient monuments (architectus publicorum) beginning a long tradition of attempts to preserve Rome’s ancient fabric.
However, revival was stressed, fragments not appreciated…
source: UiO , lecture in history conservation, fall 2005
člen17. decembra 2006 o 23:19
Approaches to repair and maintenance in Antiquity.
Inherent visual unity existed, to a degree, by default:
styles and material technologies changed slowly, thus many repairs were automatically done in a somewhat harmonious style with the original.
The idea of a memorial was well-established in the ancient world. However, physical form / substance and an object’s ability to function as a memorial were not necessarily connected.
The first objects or sites deemed worthy of protection were almost certainly those which held religious significance. In early societies, religion was the factor which defined beliefs concerning the past (lives of the ancestors); a precursor of the idea of heritage.
The idea of a monument as something that is valued for the idea it carries, not as a physical object in and of itself
Evidence for ‘restoration’ (as in stylistic reproduction based on a concept of visual recognition) in antiquity:
left: Capital from an Ionic temple in the early Classical period.
right: Roman repair of the same temple, copied from the Greek original on
the left – a Roman ‘restoration’. The surface finish is rougher but the style is approximately harmonious.
(From Jokilehto (2002) pp. 2,3.)
source: UiO , lecture in Kons 2010, fall 2005